The themes covered in these agreements are very broad: biodiversity and nature protection, climate change, protection of the ozone layer, desertification, chemical and waste management, cross-border water and air pollution, environmental policy (including impact studies, access to information and public participation), work accidents, maritime and river safety, environmental responsibility. While protocols appear to be the ultimate top-down of governance, with „rules of public participation“, it is widely accepted that the influence of transnational networks has increased Public opinion is relevant because there must be concerns about acting and providing public resources.  Since young activist Greta Thunberg started Friday for the future, she has grown more and more. Non-governmental organizations also perform certain tasks, ranging from gathering information and developing strategies to mobilizing support. Science plays an important role, although Susskind argues that this role is sometimes reduced by uncertainty, differences of opinion and the rise of „contrasting science.“  The economy can also be involved with positive results. An international environmental agreement, or sometimes an environmental protocol, is a kind of treaty of international law that allows them to achieve an environmental objective. In other words, it is an „intergovernmental document that is designed as legally binding and is primarily aimed at preventing or managing the human impact on natural resources.“  Most environmental problems are cross-border and often comprehensive and can only be effectively addressed through international cooperation. That is why the Lisbon Treaty stipulates that one of the main objectives of the EU`s environmental policy is to promote action at the international level to address regional or global environmental problems, and in particular to combat climate change. The EU is actively involved in the development, ratification and implementation of multilateral environmental agreements. In all these areas, the Union is a strong supporter of international environmental action and cooperation and an active player committed to promoting the concept of sustainable development around the world.
The use of multilateral environmental agreements began in 1857, when a German agreement regulates the flow of water between Lake Constance and Austria and Switzerland.  International environmental protocols were put in place as part of environmental policy following the widespread perception of cross-border environmental problems in the 1960s.  Global environmental problems that MEAS are supposed to address include: loss of biodiversity, adverse effects of climate change, depletion of the ozone layer, hazardous waste, organic pollutants, marine pollution, trafficking in endangered species, destruction of wetlands, etc. Finally, countries may not be motivated to change their environmental policy because of conflicts with other interests, including economic prosperity. If environmental protocols cause economic hardship or damage to one country, it may escape protocols, while other countries comply with them, resulting in a classic problem of parasitism. In addition, environmental protocols can be criticized for scientific uncertainty or, at the very least, for a lack of synthesis of scientific information that can be used for „conflicting interests and disaster“.  This can now be seen as an excuse defined as skepticism about climate change. The World Trade Organization participated in the ACCORD negotiations because of the trade impact of the agreements. The organization follows trade and environmental policies that promote the protection and preservation of the environment. The aim is to reduce trade barriers and coordinate trade actions with environmental policies.  Because MEAS protects and protects the environment, they can help ease trade restrictions